Обновлено: 8 May 2022.
In this publication, we will talk about refrigerant r410a, the properties and characteristics of this gas. We give tables of the boiling point of refrigerant 410, operating pressure, properties on the saturation line of liquid and steam.
History of appearance
After the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, the participating countries began to abandon refrigerants that destroy the Earth’s ozone layer. This has led to the development of new refrigerants and systems for their use. The Protocol provided for the phase-out of halogenated hydrocarbons (haloalkanes).
R410a gas was developed as a refrigerant that has a low ozone depletion potential (ODP). This indicator for refrigerant 410a is 0. R410-a gas has a high global warming potential (GPW) of 1800. It captures and retains 1800 times more heat than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.
Initially, it was planned to use it as an alternative to R-22 refrigerant in new equipment. Since the temperature glide of R-410A mixture of gases is less than 0.3 degrees, it was ideally suited for these purposes. But subsequently, more suitable alternatives to the 22nd halon were developed.
Some manufacturers have patented blends under their own brand names. The characteristics of 410 refrigerant remain the same regardless of the brand name. It is known by the names:
- SUVA 9100;
- AZ 20;
- Forane 410a;
- Solkane 410.
Due to the high global warming potential, r410a refrigerant must be disposed of. But due to its greater density than air, the gas does not rise into the atmosphere when it leaks. Therefore, in fact, it does not affect the greenhouse effect.
Compared to r22, r410-a gas has a higher density. Therefore, the walls of the evaporator, condenser, copper pipes and other components of the system must be thicker. This makes the systems more expensive. But due to better cooling capacity, the cooling system is more compact.
The density of R410a refrigerant is 50% higher than that of R22. With retrofit, a significant revision of the equipment is necessary. Cooling capacity is 35-45% higher. It is a replacement for HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) in:
- Household, light commercial and industrial air conditioners;
- Household and industrial refrigerators and cooling units;
- Refrigerated vending machines;
- Refrigerated and frozen cargo transportation systems.
Retrofitting, also Retrofit (eng. retrofit [‘retrəufɪt] from retro- “retro, back in time” + fit “to fit”) – Modernization involving the addition of new technology or its properties to older systems.
410 refrigerant is a pseudo-azeotropic mixture. The evaporation and condensation temperatures of its components are very close. When leaking, they evaporate in equal amounts, the composition of the gas does not change. Therefore, it can be refueled into the system, and not replaced completely.
Refrigerant 410 boiling point and pressure table
This table shows the boiling point of refrigerant 410 and the pressure in the air conditioner and other refrigeration equipment. The working pressure of R410a mixed gas in the air conditioner is indicated in absolute atmospheres (bar).
|T, °С||Liquid||Gas||T, °С||Liquid||Gas|
Specifications for r410a refrigerant
|Boiling point at 1 atm||°C||-51.58|
|Liquid density at 25 °C||kg/cu.m.||1062|
|Specific heat capacity of a liquid at 25 °C||kJ/kg||1842.192|
|Specific heat capacity of vapors at 1 atm||kJ/kg||711.756|
|Heat of vaporization at boiling point||kJ/kg||264.3|
|Saturated steam density at -25 °C||kg/cu.m.||18.5|
|Saturated steam density at -51.58 °C||kg/cu.m.||4|
|Steam pressure at 25 °C||MPa||0.1653|
|Limiting flammability in air||% volume||Not|
|Self-ignition temperature, 0С||°C||–|
|Ozone Depletion Potential ODP||0|
|Global Warming Potential HGPW||0.45|
|Global Warming Potential GWP||1890|
|MPC at the workplace, ppm||1000|
Composition of refrigerant r410a
Refrigerant R410-a is a two-component substance. The composition of the r410a refrigerant includes:
The components that make up 410 refrigerant gas have similar characteristics and the dependence of boiling point and pressure. Such a mixture is called pseudo-azeotropic (close to azeotropic). That is, R410a does not change its composition during a leak because refrigerant R32 and R125 evaporate at the same rate.
r32 and r410a
The advantage of r32 refrigerant over r410a is its safety for the environment. Its global warming potential is 2.8 times lower. It is 645 units, while the GWP characteristic of r410-a refrigerant is 1800 units.
The disadvantage of R32 is its flammability. It is a flammable gas. When used in small systems, its mass is small, in the event of a fire, the probability of a fire is low. But if systems with a large amount of refrigerant leak and ignite, the risk of fire is much higher.
It is impossible to answer the question which refrigerant is better than r410a or r32. But in small systems it is preferable to use refrigerant R-32 , in large installations R-410a. this is due to fire safety, the cooling capacity of the refrigerants is the same.
Oil for R410-a refrigerant
Equipment requires compressor synthetic polyester (POE) oil. Depending on the equipment and operating conditions, viscosity is selected. There are several manufacturers producing lines of refrigeration oils for the 410 refrigerant:
- Mobil EAL Arctic 32.46, 68.100;
- PLANETELF ACD 32.46, 68.100;
- Suniso SL 32, 46,68,100;
- Emkarate RL 32, 46, 68, 85,100, 170, 220;
- Biltzer BSE 32, 55, 170, 170L.
Refrigerant r410a toxicity and harm to human health
When it comes into contact with the skin, the refrigerant degreases it. This can cause itching and irritation. When r410a refrigerant enters in a liquid state, it evaporates. This leads to cooling of the skin, possibly frostbite.
The toxicity of r410a has been tested on animals. Throughout their lives, male rats breathed air mixed with refrigerant R410a. An increased risk of developing salivary gland fibrosarcomas has been noted.
Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous connective tissue cells.
No acute effects of poisoning or intoxication were recorded. When the concentration of a gas in the air increases, it displaces oxygen. The negative effects are due to its lack, and not due to the toxicity of the r410a refrigerant. May happen:
- dizziness and loss of coordination;
- Increased pressure and pulse rate;
- Increased frequency and depth of breathing, shortness of breath;
- Arrhythmia (with an acute lack of oxygen).
Characteristics of r410a refrigerant at saturation line
|°C||satur.||kg/cu.m.||kJ/kg||kJ/(kg*K)||satur.||kg/cu.m.||kJ/kg||kJ/(kg*K)||steam gener. (kJ/kg)|
In this article, we have given the characteristics of R-410a refrigerant, its pressure and temperature tables. They also talked about the history of origin and features. You learned about the toxicity of refrigerant r410a, its effect on humans. We hope the post was helpful. Save it to your wall and don’t forget to share it with your friends and colleagues.
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